NEW BIOCHEMICAL PESTICIDE REGISTERED AS AN ALTERNATIVE TO METHYL
EPA registered a new biochemical pesticide, the Harpin protein
(Trade Name MESSENGERTM ) on April 19, as an alternative to
conventional, synthetic pesticides such as methyl bromide. This
biochemical pesticide is registered for use on field crops,
trees, turf, and ornamentals to control a wide variety of fungal,
bacteria, and viral pathogens as well as several insect pests.
Unlike most pesticides, the Harpin protein does not act directly
on the target pest. Instead, it activates a natural defense
mechanism in the host plant, called systematic acquired
resistance, that makes the plant resistant to a wide range of
fungal, bacterial and viral diseases. The Harpin protein also
protects against certain nematodes and fungal diseases that have
few effective controls except methyl bromide, a broad-spectrum
pesticide that is believed to contribute to stratospheric ozone
depletion and have adverse effects on human health. The Harpin
protein is non-toxic and not expected to pose risks to human
health or the environment. Because the product is applied at low
rates and degrades rapidly in the field, no residues are expected
on treated crops. In addition, studies demonstrate no toxicity to
humans and no adverse effects on many species of wildlife (e.g.,
birds, fish, honeybees, aquatic invertebrates, non-target plants
During its experimental use stage, the Harpin protein was used on
tomatoes as a component of Integrated Pest Management programs,
thereby decreasing the use of conventional pesticides by 70
percent while outperforming them in effectiveness. EDEN
Biosciences Corp. of Bothell, Wash., was granted registrations
for both the Harpin protein and MESSENGERTM (the only product
containing this protein as an active ingredient). For more
information, see http://www.epa.gov/pesticides/biopesticides.
3M TO PHASE OUT MANUFACTURE OF BIOACCUMULATIVE SCOTCHGARD
CHEMICALS BY 2001
Following negotiations between EPA and 3M, the company announced
that it will voluntarily phase out and find substitutes for
perfluorooctanyl sulfonate (PFOS) chemistry used to produce a
range of products, including some of their Scotchgard lines. 3M
data supplied to EPA indicated that these chemicals are very
persistent in the environment, have a strong tendency to
accumulate in human and animal tissues and could potentially pose
a risk to human health and the environment over the long term.
EPA supports the company's plans to phase out and develop
substitutes by year's end for the production of their involved
PFOS chemicals are used to produce a range of products from fire
fighting foams, coatings for fabrics, leather, and some paper
products, to industrial uses such as mist suppressants in acid
baths. The company is continuing a major research effort on these
chemicals to enhance the understanding of any potential risks
that may be associated with this class of chemicals. EPA will
also be evaluating the chemicals to determine how individuals and
the environment are exposed and what potential adverse effects
may exist. If future regulatory actions are required, EPA will
At present, 3M is the only US manufacturer of PFOS. EPA will be
contacting foreign governments and other chemical manufacturers,
both domestically and internationally, to seek their support for
a voluntary phaseout of PFOS and related chemicals.
SAN FRANCISCO BANS MERCURY FEVER THERMOMETERS
San Francisco's Board of Supervisors passed an ordinance on May
8,2000 banning the sale, import and manufacture of mercury
thermometers within San Francisco's city and county limits.
Health Care Without Harm (HCWH) praised the board's decision,
which makes San Francisco the first county in the nation to enact
such a ban. Duluth, Minn. was the first city in the nation to ban
the retail sale of mercury fever thermometers.
Mercury is a known neurotoxin and particularly hazardous to
developing fetuses and young children. Poison control centers and
emergency rooms took 18,000 calls in 1998 because of broken
mercury fever thermometers. Some of these exposures have resulted
in serious health effects for those involved, including damage to
the liver, kidneys and nervous system. If mercury spills from a
thermometer and is not cleaned up, it will evaporate, potentially
reaching dangerous levels in indoor air. Mercury is also a
persistent bioaccumulative toxic compound, recognized as a global
pollutant. Fish consumption advisories exist in 40 states due to
San Francisco's ban is consistent with many national mercury
elimination initiatives in healthcare. In June, the Board of
Supervisors adopted a resolution banning mercury thermometers in
city-owned hospitals and clinics. In addition to local
initiatives, in 1998, the United States Environmental Protection
Agency (EPA) and the American Hospital Association (AHA) signed a
memorandum of understanding (MOU). The goal of the MOU was the
virtual elimination of mercury in healthcare.
Selected fire stations around the city of San Francisco have
begun exchanging residents' mercury fever thermometers for free
digital ones. The exchange will continue throughout May.
"We hope this ordinance and the ordinance passed in Duluth will
spark the involvement of local governments and pharmacy chains
around the country," said Jamie Harvie, HCWH's mercury
coordinator. "This is a wonderful opportunity for them to protect
the health and the environment of the communities they serve by
voluntarily stopping the sale of mercury fever thermometers."
OVER $35 MILLION IN BROWNFIELDS GRANTS TO REVITALIZE CONTAMINATED
Vice President Gore today awarded over $35 million in grants to
102 communities across the country to clean up brownfields -
abandoned, lightly contaminated properties often found in
economically distressed areas - and return them to economically
thriving, community hubs.
The Clinton-Gore Administration today awarded 56 Brownfields
Assessment Pilot Grants totaling over $12 million to help
communities evaluate the environmental contamination of
brownfield sites. With the help of these grants, state and local
officials compile information that is then used to attract
potential developers for the location. In addition, this year's
assessment grants also include provisions for the evaluation,
protection and preservation of "green space"-- parks,
playgrounds, trails, gardens, habitat restoration, and open space
-- on revitalized brownfield sites.
Today's announcement also includes $20 million in Brownfields
Cleanup Revolving Loan Fund pilots for 30 grantees supporting 54
communities. These grants allow communities to establish
revolving loan funds to provide businesses with low-interest
loans to leverage funds for the cleanup and redevelopment of
brownfields. Awarded on a competitive basis, this funding allows
communities that have demonstrated a commitment to the
revitalization of brownfields through the use of a brownfields
assessment grant to build upon their past successes.
In addition, 16 communities will receive job training grants,
approximating $200,000 each, for the implementation of
environmental training programs. Totaling $2.8 million this
funding provides for the creation of workforce development
programs to teach job skills in the field of environmental
cleanup to individuals living in low income areas in the vicinity
of brownfield sites. The majority of participants who
successfully complete the training program go on to pursue
careers with environmental firms and organizations.
Since 1993, the Clinton-Gore Administration has awarded over $157
million in brownfields grants to cities, counties, tribes,
states, non-profits and educational institutions nationwide.
According to an independent study conducted by the Council for
Economic Development, the revitalization of brownfields has
created over 22,000 permanent jobs, and leveraged $2.48 in
private investment for every $1 spent by federal, state, or local
With today's selection of recipients in Arkansas and Hawaii,
brownfields revitalization efforts are now active in all 50
states for the first time ever.
EPA PROPOSES REDUCED SULFUR CONTENT IN DIESEL FUEL TO ENSURE
CLEAN HEAVY-DUTY TRUCKS AND BUSES
EPA has proposed a major action to reduce the sulfur content in
diesel fuel by 97 percent to provide for the cleanest-running
heavy-duty trucks and buses in history. By addressing diesel fuel
and engines together as a single system, harmful emissions from
diesel and gasoline heavy trucks and buses will be reduced up to
95 percent -- the clean-air equivalent of eliminating air
pollution from 13 million of today's trucks.
This action, in combination with other actions EPA is taking to
improve air quality, such as controlling pollution from power
plants and passenger cars, will help ensure that more than 120
million people across the country will be able to live in areas
that meet national health standards for clean air. This proposal
would reduce smog-causing nitrogen oxides from these vehicles by
95 percent, and it would reduce particulate matter, or soot, by
90 percent. In the United States, every year, smog and
particulate matter (soot) account for 15,000 premature deaths,
one million respiratory problems, 400,000 asthma attacks, and
thousands of cases of aggravated asthma, especially in children.
An older, dirtier diesel vehicle can emit almost 8 tons of air
pollution per year. There also is increasing evidence that diesel
exhaust may cause lung cancer in humans. This proposal would
reduce 2.8 million tons of smog-causing nitrogen oxides emissions
each year once the program is fully implemented. Emissions of
soot would be reduced by 110,000 tons each year.
To date, most diesel trucks and buses have not used pollution
control devices such as catalytic converters, similar to the
devices that have been used on cars for the last 25 years. To
enable pollution-control technology to be effective on trucks and
buses, diesel fuel must be significantly cleaner than it is
today. EPA has proposed a reduction in the sulfur content of
highway diesel fuel from its current level of 500 parts per
million to 15 parts per million - a 97 percent reduction. Diesel
engines are more durable and have higher fuel economy than
gasoline engines. With lower-sulfur fuels and advanced
technology, they also will be able to burn more cleanly as well.
This proposal requires diesel and gasoline engines to meet
stringent emission standards. These standards would result in the
first broad use of emission control devices such as three-way
catalysts and soot traps on these engines. Diesel engine
manufacturers would have flexibility to meet the new standards
through a phase-in approach between 2007 and 2010. Gasoline
engine manufactures will have to meet the standards in 2007.
EPA has designed this proposal to include significant lead time
for the introduction of new cleaner fuel into the marketplace and
to ensure no disruptions in fuel supply. The proposal also
discusses various flexible phase-in approaches for the diesel
fuel industry to facilitate the complete transition to new clean
diesel fuel and to reduce costs further. The fuel provisions
would go into effect in June, 2006. EPA is seeking comments in
its proposal on ways to incorporate additional flexibility for
small oil refiners.
This action, coupled with other actions regarding diesel engines,
would produce clean-air benefits that will provide as much
reduction in air pollution as will the tough new tailpipe
standards for passenger vehicles that President Clinton announced
last December. Those standards are the toughest ever for
passenger vehicles and require cars to be 77 to 95 percent
cleaner than those on the road today. Beginning in 2004,
light-duty trucks, mini-vans and sport utility vehicles will have
to meet the same tailpipe-emission standards as passenger cars.
Also, that rule requires a 90 percent reduction in the sulfur
content of gasoline.
There will be five public hearings regarding this week's
proposal. The hearings will take place in New York, Chicago,
Atlanta, Denver and Los Angeles. Following the public hearings,
there will be a 45 day comment period. Instructions on submitting
written comments are in the Federal Register notice. EPA plans to
finalize its proposal by the end of this year. The proposed rule
and related documents are available electronically via the EPA
Internet site at: http://www.epa.gov/otaq/diesel.htm.
OSHA FINES FITZGERALD, GA., PLANT $174,500 FOR SAFETY AND HEALTH
The U.S. Department of Labor's Occupational Safety and Health
Administration has cited Elixir Industries (G&L Steel Division)
and proposed penalties totaling $174,500 for safety and health
violations found during an inspection of the company's
Fitzgerald, Ga., plant.
According to Luis Santiago, OSHA's Savannah area director, safety
and health inspections were conducted based on the Fitzgerald
plant's high rate of lost workdays due to illness and injury in
The health inspection resulted in two willful citations with
penalties of $110,000 for violation of OSHA's noise standards.
The company did not train employees on the hazards of noise and
noise protective measures and failed to provide audiometric
testing to ensure that employees were not suffering hearing loss.
An additional $10,000 penalty was proposed for two serious health
violations ? failure to provide eye washes and emergency showers
for employees who might be exposed to battery acid and failure to
provide protective follow-up measures for employees who had
suffered hearing losses. The remaining $4,000 health-related fine
was proposed for two other-than-serious violations for failing to
make OSHA noise standard information available to employees and
for failing to complete illness and injury logs accurately.
Eight additional citations ? seven serious and one repeat - with
a combined penalty of $50,500 resulted from OSHA's safety
inspection of the plant. The repeat violation concerned
lockout-tagout standards which require that machinery be rendered
inoperable during maintenance and repair to protect workers from
amputations and other injuries. The company had been previously
cited for a similar violation at its facility in Douglas, Ga.
The serious safety violations included: not adequately protecting
gasoline and liquified petroleum gas tanks from damage and
spills; not guarding equipment that exposed employees to
lacerations and amputations, and failing to protect workers from
electrical hazards by not identifying electrical circuits and not
guarding equipment that could cause electrocution.
"OSHA has particular concern when an employer knowingly places
employees at risk," said Santiago. "The Fitzgerald plant
established a hearing conservation program, including annual
audiograms, from 1994 through 1996 after the Douglas plant was
cited for failing to establish such a program. In 1997, the
company discontinued the testing at the Fitzgerald facility,
disregarding written notices by the safety consultant, safety
manager and an audiologist, all of whom stressed the importance
of audiometric testing to conserve employee hearing."
Santiago continued, "This employer had been previously cited in
1998 and 1999 at facilities in Douglas, Ga., Reidsville, N.C. and
Elkhart, Ind., for lockout-tagout hazards. Yet, we found similar
problems during our recent inspection of the Fitzgerald plant."
A willful violation is one committed with an intentional
disregard of, or plain indifference to, the requirements of the
OSH Act and regulations.
Repeat violations occur when an employer has been cited
previously for a substantially similar condition and the citation
has become a final order of the Occupational Safety and Health
OSHA defines a serious violation as one in which there is
substantial probability that death or serious physical harm could
result and that the employer knew or should have known of the
Elixir Industries, headquartered in Gardena, Calif., has 20
manufacturing plants employing approximately 1,500 workers in 15
states. Ninety of those workers manufacture metal siding, steel
and other metal fabrications and mobile home roofs at the
Fitzgerald facility. The company has 15 working days to contest
OSHA's citations and proposed penalties before the independent
Occupational Safety and Health Review Commission.
NATIONAL TOXICOLOGY PROGRAM REMOVES SACCHARIN FROM CANCER LIST,
ADDS SEVERAL NEW CHEMICALS
The National Toxicology Program's Report on Carcinogens, 9th
edition was released on May 15. The report identifies substances
that are "known" or are "reasonably anticipated" to cause cancer,
and to which a significant number of Americans are exposed. The
report identifies potential cancer hazards. A listing in the
report does not by itself establish that a substance presents a
cancer risk to an individual in daily life.
This latest report contains 14 new listings. Eight of the new
entries are listed as "known to be human carcinogens" and the
other 6 entries as "reasonably anticipated to be human
carcinogens." This Report also reclassifies 6 current listings
from "reasonably anticipated" to "known to be human carcinogens."
2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) has been proposed for
upgrade to the "known to be a human carcinogen" category. The
proposed listing is currently in litigation. Depending on the
outcome of the litigation, an addendum may be published following
the court's ruling. Two additional substances have been removed
or delisted from the Report: saccharin and ethyl acrylate.
New listings include some substances to which large numbers of
people are exposed including environmental tobacco smoke, tobacco
smoking, oral use of smokeless tobacco products, alcoholic
beverage consumption, diesel exhaust particulates, UV solar
radiation, and use of sun lamps and sun beds. The Report's
findings are based on three years of study that included three
scientific reviews and public comment from scientists, consumers
and other interested parties.
The following briefly describes the additions and/or changes made
to the 9th edition of the report:
Saccharin - Saccharin has been removed. The Calorie Control
Council nominated saccharin for delisting, which led to a new
review of the carcinogenicity data for saccharin. Saccharin had
been listed in the Report as "reasonably anticipated to be a
human carcinogen" since 1981. The basis for this listing was
sufficient evidence of carcinogenicity in experimental animals.
Saccharin was removed from the Report after this extensive review
determined that the rodent cancer data are not sufficient to meet
the current criteria to list this chemical in the Report as a
"reasonably anticipated human carcinogen." This is based on the
determination that the observed bladder tumors in rats arose from
a mechanism that is not relevant to humans.
Dr. Kenneth Olden, Director of the National Institute of
Environmental Health Sciences and the National Toxicology
Program, said, "Two decades ago, when saccharin was shown to
produce bladder tumors in rats, it was a prudent, protective step
to consider the sweetener to be a likely human carcinogen.
However, our understanding of the science has advanced and allows
us to make finer distinctions today. Studies now indicate that
the rat bladder tumors arise from mechanisms that are not
relevant to the human situation. In addition, we have decades
more data from observations of humans using saccharin that adds
to our confidence. In other words, with better science we can now
make a better call."
Ethyl acrylate - Ethyl acrylate, a substance used in making latex
paints and textiles, which had been listed since 1989 as
"reasonably anticipated to be a human carcinogen," was also
delisted. The Basic Acrylic Monomer Manufacturers, Inc. (BAMM)
had nominated ethyl acrylate for delisting, which led to a new
review of the carcinogenicity data for ethyl acrylate. The review
found that tumors induced in animal studies were seen only when
the chemical was given by an oral route at high concentrations,
resulting in persistent and severe gastric tissue injury. Because
significant chronic human oral exposure to high concentrations of
ethyl acrylate is unlikely, it was concluded that ethyl acrylate
should not be considered "reasonably anticipated to be a human
The delistings of saccharin and ethyl acrylate are the first
since a formal process for delisting substances from the Report
was established in 1996.
Added as "known human carcinogens" or upgraded to that category
in the 9th Report:
Environmental tobacco smoke - Environmental tobacco smoke,
generated from sidestream and exhaled mainstream smoke of
cigarettes, pipes, and cigars is listed as a "known human
carcinogen." The Report indicates this listing is based on the
observed causal relationship between passive exvisure to tobacco
smoke and human lung cancer. The listing states that there are
conclusive published studies that indicate increased risk of lung
cancer in nonsmoking women living with smoking husbands or
working with smoking co-workers.
Tobacco smoking - Tobacco smoking (i.e. directly inhaled tobacco
smoke) is listed as a "known human carcinogen." Cigarette smoking
has been known to cause cancer in humans for many years, and is
now considered to be the leading preventable cause of cancer in
developed countries. Separate chemicals identified in tobacco
smoke were already listed as carcinogens in the Report. The new
listing of tobacco smoking is the result of the 1996 revision in
the review process that allows for the review and listing of
exposure circumstances in the Report.
Smokeless tobacco- Smokeless tobacco (chewing tobacco and snuff)
forms a third group of tobacco-related substances listed as
"known human carcinogens." The Report states that cancers of the
oral cavity (i.e. mouth, lip, tongue) have been associated with
the use of chewing tobacco as well as snuff, which are the two
main forms of smokeless tobacco used in the United States.
Studies indicate that the tumors often arise at the site of
placement of the tobacco.
Consumption of alcoholic beverages - Consumption of alcoholic
beverages is listed as a "known human carcinogen." The Report
states that consumption of alcoholic beverages is causally
related to cancers of the mouth, pharynx, larynx, and esophagus,
and goes on to say that studies indicate that the risk is most
pronounced among smokers and at the highest levels of
consumption. The Report reports that the effect of a given level
of alcoholic beverage intake on cancers of the head and neck is
influenced by other factors, especially smoking, but that smoking
does not explain the increased cancer hazard associated with
alcoholic beverage consumption. The Report also states that there
is evidence that suggests a link between alcoholic beverage
consumption and cancer of the liver and breast.
Solar UV radiation and exposure to sunlamps and sunbeds -
Exposure to solar ultraviolet radiation, sunlamps, or sunbeds is
listed as a "known human carcinogen." The Report cites data that
indicate a causal relationship between exposure to solar
radiation and melanoma and other skin cancers in humans, and that
exposure to sunlamps or sunbeds is associated with melanoma. The
Report also indicates that skin cancers are observed with
increasing duration of exposure, and the effects are especially
pronounced in individuals under 30 and for those who experience
Crystalline silica (respirable size) - Crystalline silica
(respirable size), which is primarily quartz dust occurring in
industrial and occupational settings in the form of fine,
breathable particles, was also upgraded to a "known human
carcinogen." Respirable crystalline silica results from mining
and grinding coal. Comments were received expressing concern that
this listing would lead to confusion among the public over the
possibility that sand at the beach is carcinogenic. However, the
Report makes clear that the listing is based on increased lung
cancer rates in workers exposed to respirable-size (breathable)
crystalline silica, primarily quartz and crystabolite, that are
generated during sandblasting and similar activities in an
Strong inorganic acid mists containing sulfuric acid - Strong
inorganic acid mists containing sulfuric acid are listed as
"known human carcinogens." The Report states that studies
indicate occupational exposures to strong inorganic acid mists
containing sulfuric acid are specifically associated with
laryngeal and lung cancer in humans. Industrial processes in
which occupational exposure to sulfuric acid mist has been
examined include manufacture of isopropyl alcohol, lead
batteries, phosphate fertilizers, soap and detergents, synthetic
ethanol, and pickling and other acid treatments of metals.
Dyes metabolized to benzidine - Dyes metabolized to benzidine are
listed in the 9th Report as "known human carcinogens." These dyes
are used mainly for dyeing textiles and paper. This listing is
based on the fact that benzidine, which has been listed in the
Report since 1980, is a known human carcinogen and once absorbed,
these benzidine-based dyes are converted to free benzidine in
humans. Benzidine was one of the first chemicals for which an
association of occupational exposure and increased incidence of
urinary bladder cancer in humans was reported.
1,3-Butadiene - 1,3-Butadiene was upgraded from "reasonably
anticipated" to a "known human carcinogen" in the 9th Report.
This chemical is used in the manufacture of synthetic rubber. The
upgrading to a "known human carcinogen" was based on findings
from studies in humans that provided evidence of a causal
relationship between occupational exposure to 1,3-butadiene and
excess mortality from hematopoietic cancers.
Cadmium and cadmium compounds- Cadmium and cadmium compounds were
upgraded from "reasonably anticipated" to "known human
carcinogens" in the 9th Report. These materials are used in
batteries, coating and plating, plastic and synthetic products
and alloys, and had been listed as "reasonably anticipated to be
a human carcinogen" since 1980. The Report identifies findings of
increased risk of lung cancers in workers exposed to cadmium and
Ethylene oxide - Ethylene oxide was upgraded from "reasonably
anticipated" to a "known human carcinogen" in the 9th Report.
This chemical is used to make other chemicals and is also widely
used in the health care industry to sterilize medical devices. It
had been listed in the Report as "reasonably anticipated to be a
human carcinogen" since 1985. The Report cites findings of
increased risk for leukemia and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma in workers
exposed to ethylene oxide. This information coupled with data on
its genotoxic and biochemical interactions with human DNA led to
the upgrading to a "known human carcinogen."
Tamoxifen - Tamoxifen is listed in the 9th Report as a "known
human carcinogen" based on evidence from studies in humans that
indicate tamoxifen increases the risk of uterine cancer in women.
While there is clear evidence that tamoxifen causes uterine
cancer in women, there is also conclusive evidence that tamoxifen
therapy reduces the risk of cancer in the opposite breast in
women with a previous diagnosis of breast cancer, and reduces the
incidence of breast cancer in women at increased risk for this
Added as "reasonably anticipated to be human carcinogens" in the
Diesel exhaust particulates - Diesel exhaust particulates are
listed as "reasonably anticipated to be a human carcinogen."
These particulates are generated in diesel exhaust, which is a
complex mixture of combustion products of diesel fuel, with the
exact composition depending on the type of engine, the speed and
load at which it is run, and the composition of the fuel used.
The Report states the listing is based on limited findings of
elevated lung cancer rates in occupational groups exposed to
diesel exhaust. These groups include railroad workers, mine
workers, bus garage workers, and trucking company workers.
Isoprene - Isoprene is listed as "reasonably anticipated to be a
human carcinogen." Isoprene is one of the major components that
makes up natural rubber and is used to make synthetic rubbers. It
is also emitted from plants and trees, has been detected in
tobacco smoke and automobile exhaust, and was identified as a
major endogenous hydrocarbon in human breath. The Report states
the listing is based on findings from laboratory animal studies
of isoprene where cancer was observed in multiple organ sites
following long-term inhalation exposures.
Chloroprene - Chloroprene is listed as "reasonably anticipated to
be a human carcinogen." It is primarily used in the production of
the elastomer polychloroprene (neoprene). The Report states the
listing is based on findings from laboratory animal studies of
chloroprene in which cancer was observed in multiple organs of
multiple species following long-term inhalation exposures.
Phenolphthalein - Phenolphthalein is listed as "reasonably
anticipated to be a human carcinogen." It is used as a laboratory
reagent and acid-base indicator and has been used in
over-the-counter laxative preparations. The listing is based on
findings from feeding studies of phenolphthalein that caused
cancer in multiple organs in multiple species of experimental
Tetrafluoroethylene - Tetrafluoroethylene is listed as
"reasonably anticipated to be a human carcinogen." It is used in
the production of polytetrafluoroethylene and other polymers. The
Report states the listing is based on findings from laboratory
animal studies of tetrafluoroethylene in which cancer was
observed in multiple organs of multiple species following
long-term inhalation exposures.
Trichloroethylene - Trichloroethylene is listed as "reasonably
anticipated to be a human carcinogen." It is used mainly as a
degreaser for metal parts and at one time was used to
decaffeinate coffee. The Report states the listing is based on
limited findings of elevated liver and biliary tract cancer rates
in occupational groups exposed to trichloroethylene and
sufficient evidence of cancer formation in experimental animal
Questions regarding the 9th Report should be directed to the NTP
Liaison & Scientific Review Office at: telephone (919) 541-0503,
fax (919) 541-0295, or e-mail: email@example.com
The 9th edition of the Report is available on the NTP RoC
Homepage at http://ntp-server.niehs.nih.gov/NewHomeRoC/AboutRoC.htm
1998 TRI DATA RELEASED
EPA has released the 1998 TRI Data. The URL at the end of this
message provides fast and easy access to the data overview and
relevant TRI information (including tables, charts, and maps).
The TRI data can be accessed through a new tool, the TRI
Explorer, as well as through other tools described on this page.
EPA created the TRI Explorer to provide access to TRI data that
is both easy to understand and flexible to use. Currently, the
TRI Explorer is limited to on- and off-site releases. The TRI
Explorer will generate on- and off-site release reports for
facilities, chemicals, geographic areas, or industry type (SIC
code) at the county, state, and national levels. It will be
updated to include other waste management data (i.e, recycling,
energy recovery, and treatment) in the future.
In late June, EPA will be issuing the more detailed 1998 TRI
Public Data Release Report and State Fact Sheets which are
usually released with the data. The TRI Public Data Release
Report books are published each year and provide a general
overview of that year's TRI data and information on trends. The
State Fact Sheets are released with the Public Data Release
Reports and provide a brief summary of the TRI data by State.
The TRI 1998 Data Release webpage is